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3D Printing Directory
3D printing creates real, solid objects one layer at a time using digital data. 3D printing may therefore soon do for manufacturing and medicine what computers and the Internet have already done for the creation, processing and storage of information. For an explanation of 3D printing technologies, opportunities and implications, please see the 3D Printing page, my 3D Printing videos, or my book 3D Printing: Second Edition.
The 3D printing marketplace is now evolving extremely quickly. This directory brings together links to many of those organizations currently developing and producing 3D printers, as well as some of those pioneering their application. If you know of a site that should be included, please let me know.
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The following all manufacture 3D printers for commercial applications that range from rapid prototyping to direct digital manufacturing (DDM):
- 3D Systems
3D Systems makes hardware based on a wide range of technologies, including vat photopolymerization (stereolithography), powder bed fusion (laser sintering and DMLS), binder jetting (ColorJet Printing), material jetting (MultiJet Printing) and material extrusion (PlasticJet Printing).
3Geometry in India produces 3D printers for making sand cast molds and cores.
- Additive Industries
Additive industries produces the MetalFab1 powder bed fusion 3D printer for making final components in metal.
ADMATEC produces 3D printers that fabricate highly detailed ceramic parts.
Agilista are a Japanese manufacturer of material jetting 3D printers.
Arcam produces 3D printers based on a powder bed fusion technology called electron beam melting.
Asiga produces desktop vat photopolymerization (stereolithographic) 3D printers.
Aspect are based in Japan and produce powder-bed fusion 3D printers.
BeAM is a French manufacturer of 3D printers that use the directed energy deposition process.
BigRep produce a material extrusion 3D printer called the BigRep ONE that features a 1.3 cubic metre build volume.
Blueprinter produces a desktop 3D printer that uses a powder bed fusion technology called selective heat sintering (SHS) .
Carmina are a South Korean manufacturer of vat photopolumerization (DLP projection) 3D printing hardware.
CMET produce vat photopolymerization (stereolithographic) 3D printers in Japan.
- Concept Laser
Concept Laser produce 3D printers based on a powder bed fusion technology called laserCUSING.
- DWS Systems
DWS Systems in Italy produce vat photopolymerization 3D printers for producing waxups.
EnvisionTEC produce a range of vat photopolymerization 3D printers based on DLP projection and 3SP (scan, spin and selectively photocure). The company also sells a 3D-Bioplotter for tissue engineering (bioprinting).
EOS manufactures a range of powder bed fusion 3D printers based on selective laser sintering. Different models are dedicated to making things in metals, plastics or sand (for 3D sand casting).
ExOne sells industrial 3D printers that use binder jetting to build objects in sand (to enable 3D sand casting), as well as stainless steel, bronze, Incolel 625 and glass.
Fabrisonic produce sheet lamination 3D printers that create objects by ultrasonically welding together layers of metal tape using what they term 'ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM).
Farsoon is a Chinese manufacturer of powder bed fusion (laser sintering) 3D printers.
- HP Inc.
Hp Inc manufacture industrial 3D printers based on their own, unique technology called multijet fusion (MJF).
Ilios produce two photopolymerization-based 3D printers for producing highly accurate resin models.
InssTek is a Korean manufacturer of directed energy desposition 3D printers.
Lithoz is a 3D printer manufacturer in Austria that has developed a vat photopolymerization technology called lithography-based ceramic manufacturing (LCM). This selectively cures a photosensitive resin that contains ceramic particles.
LUXeXceL have developed a material jetting technology called Printoptical that enables the 3D printing of functional lenses and other optical components.
MarkForg3d make material extrusion 3D printers called the Mark Two, the Mark X and the Mark X Enterprise that embed continuous strands of carbon fiber, fiberglass or Kevlar into their printouts.
- Matsurra (Mitsubis)
Matsurra, a compatriot company of Mitsubishi, produces a hybrid, direct metal 3D printer that incorporates both powder bed fusion and CNC milling technologies.
- Mcor Technologies
Mcor Technologies makes 3D printers that use a sheet lamination process called selective deposition lamination that makes full-colour printouts out of paper.
- Nano Dimension
Nano Dimension have developed the DragonFly 2020, which can 3D printing working, multi-layer, prototype circuit boards.
Nanoscribe produce a nanolithograhic 3D printer that uses two photon polymerization (2PP) to create 3D objects on a nanoscale.
Optomec produces 3D printers based on a directed energy deposition technology called 'laser engineered net shaping'. This deposits a metal powder that is melted with a laser to produce fully-dense, end-use metal parts. The company also sells 'Aerosol Jet' hardware that can print working electronics onto 3D surfaces.
Prodways are a Groupe Gorgé company who produce 3D printers based on a vat photopolymerization technology called MOVINGLight DLP.
Realizer produce powder bed fusion 3D printers based on selective laser melting.
Renishaw produce powder bed fusion 3D printers than additively manufacture metal objects.
Ricoh manufacture a powder bed fusion 3D printer called the AM S5500P that can make plastic parts.
- SLM Solutions
SLM Solutions produce a range of 3D printers based on a powder bed fusion technology called their selective laser melting.
Sciaky produce 3D printers based on a direct-metal proccess that they term 'electron beam additive manufacturing' (EBAM).
- Shaanxi Hengtong
Shaanxi Hengtong produces vat photopolymerization (stereolithographic) 3D printers.
- Shanghai Union Technology
Shanghai Union Technology produces vat photopolymerization (stereolithographic) 3D printers.
Sinterit make a low-cost, desktop laser sintering 3D printer called the Lisa.
Sintratec produce low-cost desktop laser sintering 3D printers, both in kit form and fully-assembled..
Stratasys makes 3D printers based on material extrusion (FDM) and material jetting (Polyjet and WDM)technologies. As part of its portfolio, Stratasys also owns MakerBot Industries.
Tiertime produces industrial 3D printers based on material extrusion, or what it terms 'melted extrusion modeling'.
TPM in China produces powder bed fusion (laser sintering) 3D printers.
TRUMPF is a German manufacturer of powder bed fusion and directed energy desposition direct-metal 3D printers.
voxeljet produces a range of 3D printers that use binder jetting to produce either plastic objects or 3D sand cast molds from powders. The company's largest model -- the VX4000 -- has a build volume of 4 x 2 x 1 metres.
- Wuhan Binhu Mechanical & Electrical Co
Wuhan Binhu Mechanical & Electrical Co makes 3D printers based on powder bed fusion (SLS and SLM) and vat photopolymerization (stereolithography).
The following are just some of the companies that sell 3D printers (and 3D printer kits) with a smaller price tag, and which are intended for personal/desktop use. Some of these models do, nevertheless, have the potential for small-scale commercial application.
Afinia sell a rebranded Tiertime desktop material extrusion 3D printers in the United States.
- AIO Robotics
AIO Robotics sell an all-in-one 3D printer and 3D scanner called the Zeus, which even includes an integrated STL model editor.
BeeVeryCreative make a range of very stylish and easily portable material extrusion 3D printers.
- Boots Industries
Boots Industries produce low-cost material extrusion 3D printers under the name Rostock.
BUILDER make some very solid material extrusion 3D printers, including a model with a dual extruder that can mix two thermoplastics in the same build.
- By Flow
By Flow produce a foldable, material extrusion 3D printer that has interchangeable print heads. This allows 3D printing in a variety of materials that range from thermoplastics to food.
UK-based CEL produce a very stylish material extrusion 3D printer called the Robox.
- DWS Lab
DWS Lab produce a desktop vat photopolymerization (stereolithographic) 3D printer called the XFAB.
Ekertech makes a material extrusion 3D printer called the eksbot.
Edison sell a range a material extrusion 3D printers can can output not just thermoplastics, but also pastes including a metal-clay material and chocolate.
FlashForge is a Chinese manufacturer of material extrusion 3D printers called the Finder, Dreamer and CreatorPro.
Formlabs produces desktop vat photopolymerization 3D printers called the Form1+ and Form 2.
- Fusion3 Design
Fusion3 Design make a desktop material extrusion printers called the F400 and F306.
German RepRap produce material extrusion 3D printers called the Neo and X400.
IonCoreLtd produce two material extrusion 3D printers called the Zinter and Zinter PRO.
- Leapfrog 3D Printers
Leapfrog produces a range of material extrusion 3D printers, with several of its models offering the ability to extrude
multiple materials, including a soluble support.
Lewihe produce thermoplastic extrusion 3D printers called the Play, Sneaker and Sneaker XL.
Lulzbot produce three highly regarded thermoplastic extrusion 3D printers called the Taz 5, the Taz 6 and the Taz Mini.
M3D produce a very small, low cost thermoplastic extrusion 3D printer called the M3D Micro, and a bigger printer called the Micro Pro.
- MakerBot Industries
Owned by Stratasys, MakerBot produces a range of MakerBot material extrusion 3D printers including the Replicator 2X, Replicator Fifth Generation, MakerBot Mini and the Replicator Z18.
MakerGear sells its own M Series material extrusion 3D printers, as well as some RepRap open source hardware.
Photocentic make ow-cost vat photopolymerization 3D printers that use their own unique daylight photopolymer printing (DPP) technology.
Portabee make a small, foldable material extrusion 3D printer called the Portabee Go.
PrinterBot produces low cost, material extrusion 3D printers in both kit-form and fully assembled. These include the Simple PrintrBot Plus and PrintrBox Play.
ReprapUniverse.com sells kits for MendleMax and Prussa open source, material extrusion RepRap 3D printers.
Teirtime Corporation is a Chinese 3D printer manufacturer of material extrusion 3D printers including the UP Mini, Up Plus 2 and UP BOX.
Tinkerine is a publically-traded Canadian manufacturer of material extrusion 3D printers called the Litto, Ditto+ and Ditto Pro.
Ultimaker produces several highly regarded 3D printers including the Ultimaker2+, Ultimaker 2 Extended, the Ultimaker 2 Go and Ultimaker 3.
VShaper sell a range of material extrusion 3D printers.
Weistek produce the IdeaWerk and X-Master material extrusion 3D printers.
Zmorph sell a range of desktop, material extrusion 3D printer called the Zmorph 2.0. This has interchangeable heads for 3D printing in a range of plastic and ceramic materials, as well as food.
Zortrax produces a material extrusion 3D printer called the M200.
XYZprinting is a subsidiary of the $30bn Kinpo Group, and sells a range of low cost material extrusion printers under their Da Vinci brand. Also available is a at photopolymerization model called the Nobel 1.0
The following are all pioneers in the bioprinting of living tissue and have developed bioprinting hardware.
- 3D Bioprinting Solutions
3D Bioprinting Solutions are a Russion bioprinting pioneer who have developed bioprinter called FABION.
3Dison sell a 'hybrid bio 3D printer' called theRokit Invivo.
Biobots have developed a 'fun to use' bioprinter called the BioBots 1.
Cyfuse have developed a bioprinter called the Inkredible.
Cyfuse have developed a bioprinter called the Regenova.
EnvisionTEC have developed a bioprinter system called the 3D-Bioplotter.
Organovo are a leading, publicly-traded bioprinting pioneer who have developed bioprinter called the Novogen MMX.
- Ozbolat Lab at the Penn State University
The Ozbolat Lab at the Penn State University focuses on establishing cutting-edge bioprinting science and technology .
RegenHU have developed bioprinters called the BioFactory and the 3DDiscovery.
Regenovo in China has developed three bioprinters called the Bio-Printer-Lite, Bio-Printer-Pro and Bio-Printer-WS.
- Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine
The Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine Organovo is a leading pioneer of bioprinting and tissue engineering.
The following all produce filament for material extrusion personal 3D printers:
- ColorFabb -- suppliers of filaments that include woodFill, copperFill, bronzeFill and brassFill.
- Fillamentum -- suppliers of a wide range of filaments and supports, including Timberfill.
- NinjaFlex -- suppliers of the flexible, thermoplastic elastomer filaments NinjaFlex and NinjaFlex SemiFlex.
- PrintinZ.com -- suppliers of PLA, ABS and PLA/PHA filament, and also flexible printer plates called the Zebra Plate.
- Proto-pasta -- suppliers of specialist materials including carbon fiber, carbon nanotube, stainless steel and iron composites.
- Rigid Ink -- suppliers of high-quality filaments that can be ordered in small quantities.
The following can all be used to produce digital objects for 3D printout, and/or to manipulate 3D object files.
- 3D Transform
3D Transform is a free, online 3D object file converter.
AutoCAD is an high-end, industry leading CAD package from Autodesk.
- Autodesk 123D
Autodesk 123D is a range of free 3D printing design applications.
Blender is a free, open-source 3D design package that has traditionally been used for screen-based graphics but which now includes modelling tools for 3D print.
Leopoly is a sculpting package for creating models for 3D print. The free Leopoly.com provides a "digital playground" that runs in a web browser, while the more feature-rich LeopolyNEXT is downloadable via subscription.
LimitState is a software application for fixing STL files prior to 3D printing.
Onshape provide a cloud-based professional CAD solution.
Rhino is an excellent mid-range CAD package for 3D modelling.
Sculptris is a free-version of the ZBrush 3D modelling sculpting package from Pixologic.
SketchUp (formerly Google Sketchup) is a popular 3D modelling application from Trimble Navigation. The software comes in two versions -- a personal edition called SketchUp Make which is free to download, and a paid professional edition.
SolidWorks is a highly popular, professional CAD package from Dassault Systèmes.
Tintercad is free, browser-based 3D design package.
TurboCAD is a popular, low-cost design package that can be used to create objects for 3D printout.
Zbrush is a high-end 3D modelling sculpting package from Pixologic..
The following all offer 3D printing and related services:
- 3BIGGG.com (Paris, France)
- 3D Creation Lab (Stoke on Trent, UK)
- 3D Hubs (whole planet network!)
- 3D Material Technologies (Florida, US)
- 3D Print Bureau (Royston and Stoke-on-Trent, UK)
- 3DPhacktory (Toronto, Canada)
- 3D Print UK (London, UK)
- 3DPrintus (Russia)
- 3D ProParts (Atlanta, US)
- 3D Prototype Design (Toronto and Ontario Canada)
- 3D Quick Printing (Coventry, UK)
- 3T RPD Ltd (Newbury, UK)
- Axis Prototypes (Québec,
- FIT Production (Lupburg, Germany)
- Formwurx (Northumberland, UK)
- GROWit (Lake Forest, California, US)
- Halo Technologies (West Palm Beach, Florida, US)
- i.materialise (Leuven, Belgium)
- IDC Models (Datchet, Berkshire, UK)
- Inition (London, UK)
- Industrial Plastic Fabrications Limited (Nazing, Essex, UK)
- KAIAO Rapid Manfacturing (ShenZhen City, GuangDong Province, China)
- LPE -- Laser Prototypes Europe Limited (Belfast, Northern Ireland)
- LGM Architectural Visualization (Minturn, Colorado, US)
- Made For Me (network spanning Australia, New Zealand, Canada and the US)
- Make Mode (Brooklyn, NY, US)
- Materialise OnSite (Leuven, Belgium)
- Materialise Manufacturing (Leuven, Belgium)
- Midwest Prototyping (Blue Mounds, Wisconsin, US)
- Objex Unlimited (Ontario, Canada)
- Ponoko (New Zealand, US, Germany, UK and Italy)
- Print To 3D (Pennsylvania, US)
- Proto3000.com (Woodbridge, Ontario and Laval, Quebec, Canada)
- Purple Porcupine (Irvine, California, US)
- Quickparts (Atlanta, Georgia, US)
- Rapid 3D (Pietermaritzburg, South Africa)
- Rapido3D (London, UK)
- Sculpteo (San Francisco, California, US and Issy-les-Moulineaux, France
- Shapelize (Paris, France)
- Shapeways (New York, US and Eindhoven, The Netherlands)
- Stratasys Direct Express (Valencia, California, US)
- Stratasys Direct Manufacturing (Valencia, California, US)
- Tri Axis Art (Ontario, California, US)
- Vivid 3D (Belfast, Northern Ireland)
- x3D Print (Lyon, France)
- Xometry (Gaithersburg, Maryland, US)
The following sell and support 3D printers:
The following are online repositories of 3D objects just waiting to be 3D printed:
In addition to my own 3D Printing Books, web pages and videos, the following are further sources of information . . .